The procedures and nursing care I provide are instructed by your Veterinary Surgeon.

Medications or treatments are given according to prescription and under veterinary guidance. 

© 2015 by Carla Finzel Domiciliary Referral Veterinary Nurse

BLOOD PRESSURE

'Good quality blood pressure data in the comfort of your client's home.

In the familiar surroundings of your patient.'

Indications for monitoring Blood Pressure

  • In general practice, to obtain and help identify early markers of disease during baseline health checks

  • In patients with known or suspected hypotension or hypertension due to underlying diseases.

 

Why Blood Pressure monitoring at home?  ~ NO “White Coat Syndrome” ~ Use of a little creativity, and a lot of patience

 

  •  

Some patients may fall into the category of white coat syndrome, which should not be confused with true hypertension. Unfamiliar faces, scents, and sounds, followed by a close encounter with a stranger in a white coat can inadvertently cause stress, anxiety, and fear, hindering our ability to obtain accurate blood pressure readings. In human medicine, this is a well-recognized phenomenon. Blood pressure surges occur in patients with this condition, making it difficult to ascertain valid blood pressure measurements, and potentially resulting in an inaccurate diagnosis of hypertension.  Minimizing the risk of an incorrect diagnosis of hypertension in the fearful or painful patient relies on interpretation of a pet’s body language during the examination.

 

Documenting that information, interpreting it, and communicating changes to the clinician, provides the veterinary team an opportunity to proactively manage potential problems.

HYPERTENSION 

Hypertension is typically divided into 2 categories: primary and secondary.

Primary Hypertension
Primary hypertension is caused by an imbalance between cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance that has no known cause; therefore, it is sometimes referred to as idiopathic hypertension. It is rare in small animals.

A diagnosis of primary hypertension is made when reliable blood pressure readings demonstrate a sustained increase in blood pressure, paired with a normal complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, and urinalysis.

 

Secondary Hypertension
Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that occurs secondary to concurrent disease

 

Diseases associated with Secondary Hypertension in Dogs & Cats

 

   Dogs

  • Acute Kidney Disease

  • Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • Hyperadrenocorticism

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Obesity

  • Pheochromocytoma

  • Primary hyperaldosteronism

   Cats

  • Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • Hyperthyroidism

  • Obesity

  • Pheochromocytoma

  • Primary hyperaldosteronism

 

HYPOTENSION

Hypotension is defined as lower than normal blood pressure.

Hypotension results in decreased tissue perfusion and can result in compromised blood flow to vital organs.

Common causes of hypotension are:

  • Hypovalemia

  • Obstructed venous return (eg GDV, vena cava, thrombosis)

  • Primary, such as heart failure/cardiac disease due to:

  • Cardiomyopathy

  • Valvular dysfunction

  • Arrhythmia

  • Secondary, from decreased cardiac function due to:

  • Electrolyte abnormalities

  • SIRS/sepsis

  • Severe hypoxia, acidosis, or alkalosis

  • Drug or toxin (eg, anaesthetic agent)

  • SIRS/sepsis